Karachi is the largest city, mainÂ seaportÂ andÂ financial centreÂ ofÂ Pakistan, as well as the capitalÂ of theÂ provinceÂ ofÂ Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 21 million people as of April 2012.Â Karachi is theÂ most populous cityÂ in the country and the worldâ€™s 3rd largest city in terms of population by city. The city credits its growth to the mixed populations of economic and political migrants and refugees from different national, provincial, linguistic and religious origins who have largely come to settle here permanently. It is locally termed as the City of Lights for its liveliness and the City of The Quaid, for not only being both the birth and death place of Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founder of Pakistan but also his home after 1947. Residents and those born in the city are calledÂ â€Karachiitesâ€.
It is Pakistanâ€™s centre of banking, industry, economic activity and trade and is home to Pakistanâ€™s largest corporations, including those involved in textiles, shipping,Â automotive industry,Â entertainment,Â the arts, fashion, advertising,Â publishing,Â software development and medical research
Karachi is located in the south of Pakistan, on the coast of the Arabian Sea. Its geographic coordinates are 24Â°51â€² N 67Â°02â€² E. Most of the land consisted largely of flat or rolling plains, with hills on the western andÂ ManoraÂ Island and the Oyster Rocks. The Arabian Sea beach lines the southern coastline of Karachi.
Karachi is a melting pot of many different flavors as many different cultures and people immigrated to the city giving it a very cosmopolitan touch. Before 1947, the city was inhabited mainly by Sindhis, Baluchis, Mekranis and Gujaratis from the areas near the city. In 1947Â most of the cityâ€™s Hindu population left, and a large number of immigrants Mohajirs came from India. Most of these belonged to the Urdu Speaking parts of India. Along with them, Memons from Gujarat and small quantities of communities from other areas also arrived. After independence a steady stream of immigrants has been coming to the city from different parts of Pakistan and made large Punjabi, Pathan, Bengali and Hazara communities to grow in Karachi. In 1971 there was a large influx of mainly Urdu Speaking people from the former East Pakistan. In the 1980s a large number of Afghan refugees streamed into the city. With the blending of Middle Eastern, Central Asian, South Asian and Western influences, there is considerable diversity in culture, and this diversity has produced a unique cultural amalgam of its own type giving the city a status of being international business center.
Karachi is predominantly Urdu speaking city with many other languages also spoken in the city. According to 1998 census, the linguistic distribution of the city is:Â Urdu 38.52%;Â SindhiÂ 27.34%; Punjabi 13.64%;Â PashtoÂ 11.96%â€Ž; Balochi 4.34%;Â Saraiki 2.11%; others 2.09%. The others includeÂ Dari,Â Gujarati, Dawoodi Bohra, Memon,Â Marwari, Brahui, Makrani, Kowar, Burushahki, Arabic, Persian and Bengali.
Karachi is predominantly Muslim (SunniÂ 66% andÂ ShiaÂ 34%) city with small religious minorities. The religious break-up of the city is as follows:Â Muslim 96.49%;Â Christian 2.35%;Â Hindu 0.83%;Â Ahmadi 0.17%; others 0.13%. The others includeÂ Parsis andÂ Buddhists.
Meat is an important part of Karachiâ€™s cuisine. Curries,Â pulsesÂ like dal, are also very popular. Of all the meats, the most popular are: beef, goat, chicken and seafood.Â BarbecueÂ food is also extremely popular.Â Â Dishes made with rice include pullaoÂ andÂ biryani. Different kinds of breads like:Â Chapati,Â Naan,Â Tandoor bread,Â paratha and puri are very popular.Â Sindhi biryaniÂ is also very popular in the city which at times is used as a tool in talk shows over the media against Indian biryani. Taftaan and Sheermal are also very popular and are eaten by people all over the country. Nimco is very popular across the country.
Education inÂ Karachi is divided into five levels:
- PrimaryÂ level (Grade one to five)
- Middle level (Grade six to eight)
- High level (Grade nine and ten)
- Intermediate levelÂ (Grade eleven and twelve)
- University levelÂ (Programs leading toÂ graduateÂ andÂ advancedÂ degree)
Karachi has both public and private educational institutions fromÂ primary to university level. All academic education institutions are the responsibility of theÂ Provincial Governments. TheÂ Federal GovernmentÂ mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and some financing of research. But in most of the institutions, Sindh Board is followed.
Karachi is a festive city and many religious and cultural festivities are observed across the city. Religious events such asÂ Ramadan,Â Chaand Raat, Eid Milad un NabiÂ andÂ AshuraÂ are among the most prominent festivities of the city. Many rallies and parades are carried out during the events ofÂ Milaad un Nabi,Â Ashura,Â Jashn-e-BaharanÂ andÂ NowruzÂ by religious leaders and followers all across the city. Ethnic and religious minorities, likeÂ Christians,Â Hindus, etc. also celebrate their events, although not on as large a scale as Islamic events. The Sindh Cultural Day is also celebrated in the city in the month of December. People wear traditional Sindhi Topi & Ajrak, being the popular cloth of the area, and gather in different areas of the city where they play songs, dance, attend functions where artists come and perform. Other than that, Basant is also celebrated privately by the family clubs in the city.
Being the center of international business, there were many headquarters of different channels situated in the city. But due to unstable situation in the city, many of the headquarters are now shifted to Dubai. Among the radio channels, there are many channels aired across the city but FM 96 is the famous one in the city.